El Diabolico Inconsciente: A Psychoanalytic Study of Evil
El Diabolico Inconsciente (The Diabolical Unconscious) is a book by the Argentine psychoanalyst Enrique Pichon-RiviÃre, published in 1973. In this book, Pichon-RiviÃre explores the concept of evil from a psychoanalytic perspective, drawing on his clinical experience and his analysis of historical and cultural phenomena. He argues that evil is not a metaphysical or moral category, but a psychological and social one, rooted in the unconscious conflicts and fantasies of the human mind.
Pichon-RiviÃre defines evil as \"the negation of life, the destruction of the creative potential of the human being\". He distinguishes between two types of evil: the \"active\" evil, which is the deliberate and conscious intention to harm others or oneself; and the \"passive\" evil, which is the unconscious or involuntary participation in destructive processes. He also identifies four levels of evil: the individual, the group, the social and the historical. He examines how evil manifests itself in different contexts, such as family, religion, politics and art.
The book is divided into three parts: the first part deals with the theoretical foundations of Pichon-RiviÃre's approach to evil; the second part presents several case studies of patients who suffered from various forms of evil; and the third part discusses the implications and applications of his theory for psychotherapy and social change. The book is considered a classic in Latin American psychoanalysis and a valuable contribution to the understanding of human nature and behavior.
Pichon-RiviÃre's theory of evil is based on his concept of the \"internal group\", which is the mental representation of the significant others that shape the individual's identity and affectivity. He argues that the internal group is composed of three basic elements: the leader, the hero and the scapegoat. The leader is the idealized figure that provides guidance and security; the hero is the admired figure that represents the aspirations and achievements of the group; and the scapegoat is the despised figure that bears the blame and guilt of the group.
According to Pichon-RiviÃre, evil arises when there is a distortion or imbalance in the internal group, resulting in a split between good and bad objects. This split generates a paranoid-schizoid position, in which the individual projects his or her own negative aspects onto others and perceives them as enemies or threats. The individual then resorts to various defense mechanisms, such as denial, rationalization, projection, identification and aggression, to cope with the anxiety and hostility generated by this position.
Pichon-RiviÃre proposes that the way to overcome evil is to move from the paranoid-schizoid position to the depressive position, in which the individual recognizes and integrates his or her own ambivalence and complexity, as well as that of others. The individual then develops a capacity for empathy, compassion and creativity, which allows him or her to establish more authentic and constructive relationships with oneself and others. Pichon-RiviÃre suggests that this process can be facilitated by psychoanalysis, which aims to help the individual explore and transform his or her unconscious conflicts and fantasies. 0efd9a6b88